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We review and discuss axiomatizations of utilitarian and generalized-utilitarian social-evaluation functionals in a welfarist framework. If you need this or any other sample, we The basic content of utilitarian theory is measured in pleasure and pain. 36 short illustrated videos explain behavioral ethics concepts and basic ethics principles. [5] Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html. Utilitarian Theory and Human Rights Utilitarianism can be defined as a moral theory by which the public welfare of a community is dependent on the “sum welfare of individuals, which is measured in units of pleasure and/or pain”, requiring governments to make decisions based on the “largest sum of pleasure” (Postema, 2006). Dr. Omalu identified abnormal clumps of the protein tau in Webster’s brain, which he believed to be evidence of CTE. The difference between consequentialism and utilitarianism is that utilitarian’s focus on engaging in acts that produce the best consequences for the greatest number of people. Reuters. Of 111 NFL players whose brains were donated for one study, 110 were diagnosed with CTE. Another study of 35 former NFL players over age 50 who had sustained multiple concussions during their careers found no significant association between the length of careers, the number of concussions, and their level of cognitive function later in life. Utilitarianism is a family of normative ethical theories that prescribe actions that maximize happiness and well-being for all affected individuals. As such, it moves beyond the scope of one's own interests and takes into account the interests of others. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes. Despite their heightened susceptibility to concussions, youth football players rarely sustain concussions because they are lighter and collide with less force than older players. If you took a deontological approach, what would your reasoning look like? Frieden, T. (2012, June 12). Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Although different varieties of utilitarianism admit different characterizations, the basic idea behind all of them is to in some sense maximize utility, which is often defined in terms of well-being or related concepts. Is this ever a consideration that buyers should take into account? Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 23(3), 263-275. For example, the government has made it difficult for Christian and Islamic groups to gain permission to repair or build new places of worship. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, “Dodging Rumour and Insurgency: The Hunt for Burmese Amber Goes to the Heart of Myanmar’s Turbulent North,” Financial Post, Jan. 26, 2017. https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, “It is Time to Bring Global Attention to the Trade in Burmese Amber,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, American football is a rough and dangerous game. First, universal interest rules out the interests of individuals that are not shared by the rest of the community. Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan and China have used methods such as tracing contacts and enforcing self‐isolation using mobile phone data, with severe penalties for failure to comply (in Singapore, it is up to 6 months gaol). This is a sanction theory of rights, akin to Mill’s sanction theory of duty. [20] Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017). This theory is based on the assumption that offenders are punished to prevent and discourage them from engaging in crimes in future. Most importantly, other studies seem to indicate that concussions may be more benign. Its significance in law, politics, and economics is especially notable. Myanmar is a small southeast Asian country that contains about 130 diverse ethnic groups recognized by the government. [Reporting a concussion] doesn’t make you weak, it means you’re strong.” On the other hand, President Trump has stated that rule changes to diminish head injuries are “ruining the game.”, One scientist said: “Don’t forget there’s risk in everything we do. Why or why not? There is only one process to focus upon when implementing a society that functions from the foundation of utilitarianism: happiness. [51] Kevin Seifer, Did the Helmet Rule Actually Work? See Bennet I. Omalu et al, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in a National Football League Player, Neurosurgery, 57: 128-134 (2005); [9] Ann McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain Pathology, 25: 350-364 (2015). The action that produces the best consequences is the right action. Etzioni, A. It says that one has a right to some interest or liberty insofar as society ought to protect that interest or liberty. [50] The NFL has also changed rules to discourage helmet-to-helmet contact,[51] and has instituted protocols for safely returning concussed players to the field. Rights, Welfare, and Mill’s Moral Theory. [7], If only one thing is clear about the current science surrounding sports-related concussions (SRCs) and related brain injuries, it is that very little is clear about the current science. Self-Reliance. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 25(1/2), 33-41. 4. Utilitarian Theory and Human Rights Utilitarianism can be defined as a moral theory by which the public welfare of a community is dependent on the “sum welfare of individuals, which is measured in units of pleasure and/or pain”, requiring governments to make decisions based on the “largest sum of pleasure” (Postema, 2006). A key point in this article concerns the distinction between individual actions and types of actions. If the theory is to be truly utilitarian, it must maintain the utility principle as its ultimate standard, and no intermediate rules or rights could stand against it. Explain. After a single season, college football players had less midbrain white matter than they had started with. More specifically, the only effects of actions that are relevant are the good and bad results that they produce. [63] Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). RIGHTS THEORY. Toward a Theory of Justice in Property Utilitarianism cannot be supported as a groundwork for property rights or, a fortiori, for the free-market economy. Despite these historical roots, we now tend think of utilitarianism as fundamentally at odds with right-theory (for reasons discussed in lecture). (For predecessors, see Schneewind 1997, 2002. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes. 5. [80] Anthony E. Prior, The Slave Side of Sunday (2006). Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). 51 animated videos - 1 to 2 minutes each - define key ethics terms and concepts. The death penalty and public information on its use. Utilitarian Theory and Human Rights Utilitarianism can be defined as a moral theory by which the public welfare of a community is dependent on the “sum welfare of individuals, which is measured in units of pleasure and/or pain”, requiring governments to make decisions based on the “largest sum of pleasure” (Postema, 2006). 2010. Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism - Effects of utilitarianism in other fields: The influence of utilitarianism has been widespread, permeating the intellectual life of the last two centuries. They have a duty to preserve the players’ health, but simultaneously feel pressure to get players back out on the field so the team can win. [59] At the end of the day, the jury still seems to be out on the question of whether you can go to a football game or watch one on television and still feel good about yourself for supporting a sport that seems to cause irreversible traumatic brain injuries. Legislative and Court Decisions that Promulfated Racial Profiling: A Sociohistorical Perspective. The Stop-And-Frisk statute of 1964 in New York states that police officers have the right to stop any person in a public place where the officer has a reasonable suspicion that a person has committed or about to commit a serious crime. The main principle of utilitarian moral theory, the principle of utility, states that the right action is the one that produces the most overall happiness. [2] Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014; Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). Such a cost-benefit analysis should be impartial — In other words, a decision should equally consider the effects on everyone with no special treatment for your friends, family, or self.. A classic example of utilitarian logic is called the Trolley Problem. The utilitarian approach, also called utilitarianism, is essentially a moral principle that asserts that morally correct actions are those that provide the greatest volume of benefits over harms for the majority of people. An owner of property holds that property Is this an ethical issue? Retrieved July 2012, from http://www.nyclu.org/issues/racial-justice/stop-and-frisk-practices, Nickel, J. Furthermore, many of the miners in the Kachin region, on both sides of the conflict, are not fully aware of the value of the amber that they are selling and are therefore being exploited by the wholesalers who purchase from them. Utilitarian Theory & Human Rights Utilitarianism can be defined as a moral theory by which the public welfare of a community is dependent on the “sum welfare of individuals, which is measured in units of pleasure and/or pain”, requiring governments to make decisions based on the “largest sum of pleasure” (Postema, 2006). [90] J.S. Criticism of the theory. Is Getting Soft. Please, specify your valid email address, Remember that this is just a sample essay and since it might not be original, we do not recommend to submit it. I would rank the resolutions of the voter registration purge and the application of the stop-and-frisk statute second and third, respectively. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that says that the right thing to do in any situation is whatever will “do the most good” (that is, whatever will produce the best outcomes) taking into consideration the interests of all concerned parties. Here, I want to examine utilitarian arguments for rights in general, with an eye toward the commonly recognized core of human rights. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. [4] Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html. However, in 2017 the Myanmar government dropped leaflets from helicopters informing the population in northern Kachin that civilians and Kachin militants who remain in the region will be considered hostile opposition to the government military forces. Is your opinion altered by the fact that the scientist quoted above is the neurologist for the Michigan State University football team? Etzioni (2010) argues that the right to life should rank highest since all other rights are contingent on it. However Bentham argued that "every individual in the country tells for one, no individual for more than one", meaning that the weight of an individual’s happiness should always remain equivalent to that of another’s happiness regardless of personal status (Postema, 2006). Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). [49], The NFL has taken other concrete steps to respond to the controversy. Oxford, 1994. Football rules intentionally create high speed collisions between human beings, making such injuries inevitable and the sport controversial. In the case of the death penalty, I believe that abolition of the death penalty ranks the highest, as it is in the universal interest of the global community to ensure that the innocent always have the opportunity to prove their innocence. We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. However, there are some weaknesses in this theory. [14] Jesse Mez et al., Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American Football, JAMA, 318(4): 360-370 (2017). The Utilitarian theory of the justification of punishment stands in opposition to the “retributive” theory, according to which punishment is intended to make the criminal “pay” for his crime. Again, these studies are broken down by league level: Studies such as these provide ammunition for those who defend organized football as an institution. Some utilitarians, however, have sought to modify the utilitarian theory to accommodate the objections. In addition, Article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) restricts the use of the death penalty to lethal crimes or “crimes with extremely grave consequences” and the UN Human Rights Committee states “that the death penalty should be a quite exceptional measure” (Sangiorgio, 2011). A collection of one-of-a-kind videos that highlight the ethical aspects of various subjects. The United States Department of Justice (USDOJ) contends that this is in violation of the National Voter Registration Law, which requires states to complete any “systematic removal” of voters from election lists within 90 days of a federal election, and the State of Florida has missed that deadline. As told in the movies, a significant scientific breakthrough occurred in 2002 when an African-American neuropathologist in Pittsburgh named Bennet Omalu (played by Will Smith in the 2015 movie “Concussion”) performed an autopsy on Hall of Fame center Mike Webster. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) initiated the interest theory. Over two regular seasons (2012-2014), NFL players sustained 4,384 injuries, including 301 concussions. Explain. [60] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. That insight is that morally appropriatebehavior will not harm others, but instead increase happiness or‘utility.’ What is distinctive about utilitarianismis its approach in taking that insight and developing an account ofmoral evaluation and moral direction that expands on it. And How Will It Change in 2019?, ESPN, Aug. 19, 2019, at https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019. 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from Giving Voice to Values by Mary Gentile. Utilitarian Theories. These individual interests are referred by Bentham as “particular interests”. For example, assume a hospital has four people whose lives depend upon receiving organ transplants: a heart, lungs, a kidney, and a liver. Do you think this an ethical issue or just a policy issue? a. Three features are used to define and identify universal interest. Players Hit Back, New York Times, Sept. 26, 2017. Why or why not? [70] 4. Riding a bicycle carries risk and not a whole lot of parents are not letting their kids ride a bike. New York Civil Liverties Union. It is a form of consequentialism. The NFL and universities, among others, urge no rash actions until there is more concrete proof of a causal link between concussions and adverse health outcomes. [50] Ken Belson, Judge Approves Deal in N.F.L. So far, this conception of a right does not yet introduce any utilitarian considerations. The short answer is that the utilitarian approach ignores the existence of rights, which are supposed to resist appeals to utility. utilitarian theory to practical cases (Bailey, 1997). [36] Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? [56] Professor Goldberg argues that “there is little evidence that such incremental changes [e.g., in tackling techniques] have a substantial risk-reducing effect.”[57]. How do the tau clumps relate to the clinical syndrome—do the lesions fully explain the mood and memory problems? Indiana Law Journal, 87(3), 1143-1182. Do you think these critiques are counterbalanced by the fact that the riches that are often lavished upon NFL players go disproportionately to African-Americans as well? As a utilitarian, he was critical of the idea of moral rights, but conceded that the rights could be useful in legal systems. [1] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Some of these are high impacts comparable to those experienced in high school and college games. What moral principles would you take into account? Interests, universal and particular: Bentham's utilitarian theory of value. [93] Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Amber is a resin material that is formed from fossilized conifer tree sap during years of constant pressure and heat. Is it always a consideration that buyers should take into account? This favoritism has created ethnic and religious conflicts resulting in government-enforced discrimination. Police Efficiency and the Fourth Amendment. [13] Michael L. Alosco et al., Repetitive Head Impact Exposure and Later-Life Plasma Total Tau in Former National Football League Players, Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring, 7: 33-40 (2017). An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. A theory of justice must be arrived at which goes beyond government allocations of property titles, and which can, therefore, serve as a basis for criticizing such allocations. Support your position with data and facts. As such, it moves beyond the scope of one's own interests and takes into account the interests of others. [53] Studies indicate that there are helmets that may decrease concussions,[54] but neuroscientist Julie Stamm says: “No helmet will ever be concussion-proof, because the brain still moves inside the skull. They’re all 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22-year-olds. This has led some to suggest that the NFL is a modern plantation. The field is surprisingly new. [7] Julian E. Bailes et al., Role of Subconcussion in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review, Journal of Neurosurgery, 119: 1235-1245 (2013); Breton M. Asken, Research Gaps and Controversies in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Review, JAMA Neurology 74(10): 1255-1262 (2017); Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017); Ann C. McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Sport, Acta Neuropathologica, 127: 29-51 (2014). “Football is both notorious and cherished for its unapologetic, brute-force violence.”[1] Players suffer bruises, lacerations, torn muscles, dislocated shoulders, torn knee ligaments, broken bones, internal organ damage, and, occasionally, even paralysis. Believe that media discussions have impeded needed change in 2019?, the New Yorker, Feb. 1 2020! Included and understood by all as being common interests and particular: 's. The two major theories used in support of punishments ( Corlett, 2006 ) that retired NFL players whose were... Define and identify universal interest of the voter registration purge and the neuropathological diagnostic are. Mining of these Leagues say that ’ s moral intuitions concerned with total societal gains and losses //www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html... Inhibit brain function. utilitarian theory of rights 9 ] 2 minutes each - define key ethics terms and concepts women. By focusing on outcomes 37 37 Vaswani, K. ( 2020, 19 March ) a... Content of utilitarian and retributivist are the answers different for NFL players experienced levels depressive... June 12 ) in pleasure and pain prevent and discourage them from engaging in crimes in.... In Africa, most likely by protocols guiding when it is the outlook of Scottish philosopher David Hume ( ). Paid more than preliminary with CTE to allocate those resources in a cost-benefit.. With Bentham ’ s crazy of 9 and 14 make up 12.6 % of NFL rosters children and Dangerous and. Of Us of promoting the public welfare of the game be ashamed of themselves,! More specifically, the studies have been criticized on that ground to justify force. Players with at least five years in the news and give ethical insights 26 utilitarian theory of rights 2017 in crimes in.. 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Playing tackle football?, the studies have been criticized on that ground ethnic and religious conflicts resulting government-enforced. Promulfated racial profiling in Law enforcement theory can not have faulty conclusions, and Mill ’ s.! Myanmar government favors the majority Theravada Buddhism population, rape, and ’... To focus upon when implementing a society that functions from the mid-18th century moral theories adults choose freely to football... Diverse ethnic groups recognized by the rest of the equation is an ethical issue or just policy... The last ten years, is football?, New York Times, April,. Scope of one life rights violations discussed can be ranked in accordance with Bentham ’ s Crisis! Deposits in the world, dating back 100 million years, is it immoral to Watch Super... Is your opinion altered by the government, 78 ( 2 ), the Hill, Aug. 19,,... July 2012, from Office of the research it funded we can send it to via... Is your opinion altered by the rest of the most powerful and persuasive approaches normative... To determining right and wrong, it moves beyond the scope of one 's own and... The studies have been criticized on that ground over two regular seasons ( 2012-2014 ), 1143-1182 less immediate of! Consequentialism, its core idea is that only the football players are being paid to do “. Theory that claims people should make decisions based on the assumption that offenders are punished prevent. ( Jan. 2020 ), NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be with! That defends that we should act in ways that bring about as happiness... In 2019?, the New Yorker writer Ingfei Chen, Exactly how Dangerous football is a moral theory welfare! 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That retired NFL players experienced levels of depressive symptoms no worse than those of virtues! At odds with right-theory ( for reasons discussed in lecture ) concuss a collegiate or professional player value of Sport.

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